ePlasty: Vol. 20
REVIEW
Rigid External Distractors in Midface Fractures: A Review of Relevant and Related Literature
Zachary Gala, MD,a Jordan Halsey, MD,a Samuel Kogan, MD,b Ian Hoppe, MD,c Frank S. Ciminello, MD,d and Mark S. Granick, MDa

aDivision of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ; bDivision of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ; cDivision of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS; and dDivision of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Hackensack University Medical Center, Hackensack, NJ


Correspondence: mgranickmd@njms.rutgers.edu
Keywords: rigid external distraction, RED, midface fractures, facial trauma, panfacial injury

Introduction: Literature discussing the use of rigid external distraction devices in midfacial trauma is limited. Rigid external distraction devices have been described for use in craniofacial surgery, allowing for distraction and stabilization of bony segments. In complex facial trauma, bony fragments are often comminuted and unstable, making traditional approaches with internal fixa .......