ePlasty: Vol. 16
Rhino-Orbital-Cerebral Mucormycosis and Orbital Exenteration
Matthew P. Fahrenkopf, MDa,b, Joshua J. Nelson, MDa,b, Mitchell Eichhorn, MDa,b, Julie Conway, MDc and Adam Hassan, MDd

aMichigan State University College of Human Medicine, Grand Rapids; bGrand Rapids Medical Education Partners Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Residency, Grand Rapids, Mich; cHelen DeVos Children's Hospital Pediatric Ophthalmology, Grand Rapids, Mich, and dEye Plastic & Facial Cosmetic Surgery, Grand Rapids, Mich

Keywords: mucormycosis, fungus, orbit, exenteration, diabetes


A 43-year-old man presented to the emergency department with diabetic ketoacidosis, left facial pain, and swelling. Black eschar was noted to be protruding from both external nasal cavities. A computed tomographic (CT) scan was obtained, demonstrating sinus wall thickening and decreased attenuation of the left temporal lobe. Air fluid levels were also visualized in the sphenoid, left maxillary, and left ethmoid sinuses.


1. What is mucormycosis?

2. Are there specific associated risk factors?

3. What are common presenting signs and symptoms?

4. What are treatment options for rhino-orbital-cerebral mucormycosis?


Mucormycosis is a rare fungal infection, occurring mostly in immunocompromised patients, which can be potentially deadly. It is caused by  .......