ePlasty: Vol. 17
Management of Essential Blepharospasm
Eric Clayman, MS, Kathryn S. King, MD, and Michael A. Harrington, MD, MPH

Division of Plastic Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of South Florida Morsani College of Medicine, Tampa

Correspondence: kathrynking2@health.usf.edu
Keywords: essential blepharospasm, dyskinesia, dystonia, blepharoplasty, direct brow lift
Figure 1. (a) Preoperative markings for bilateral brow lift and blepharoplasty. (b) Skin and muscle resection. (c) Immediate postoperative result.


A 63-year-old man presented with a history of intermittent difficulty opening eyes with need for excessive ocular muscle use diagnosed with essential blepharospasm, bilateral brow ptosis, and bilateral dermatochalasis. He underwent bilateral direct brow lift and upper eyelid blepharoplasty with orbicularis resection.


1. What is essential blepharospasm?

2. What causes essential blepharospasm?

3. What are the currently accepted management options for essential blepharospasm?

4. What are the potential future management options for essential blepharospasm?


Benign essential blepharospasm (BEB) is a craniofacial dyskinesi .......