ePlasty: Vol. 14
Inflammatory Response to Burn Trauma: Nicotine Attenuates Proinflammatory Cytokine Levels
L. Claassen, MD,a S. Papst, MD,b K. Reimers, PhD,c C. Stukenborg-Colsman, MD,a L. Steinstraesser, MD,d P. M. Vogt, MD,c T. Kraft, PhD,e and A. D. Niederbichler, MDf

aDepartments of Orthopedics; bAnesthesiology; cPlastic, Hand and Reconstructive Surgery, Hannover Medical School, Hannover; dDepartment of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, Handsurgery, European Medical School, Oldenburg; eDepartment of Molecular and Cell Physiology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover; and fDepartment of Hand and Plastic Surgery, Helios Klinikum Berlin-Buch GmbH, Berlin, Germany.

Correspondence: leif.claassen@ddh-gruppe.de
Keywords: burn trauma, nicotine, inflammatory reflex, neuroimmunology, cytokines

Objective: The immune response to an inflammatory stimulus is balanced and orchestrated by stimulatory and inhibitory factors. After a thermal trauma, this balance is disturbed and an excessive immune reaction with increased production and release of proinflammatory cytokines results. The nicotine-stimulated ant .......