ePlasty: Vol. 8
Sulfur Mustard Research—Strategies for the Development of Improved Medical Therapy
Kai Kehe, MD, PhD,a Frank Balszuweit, PhD,a Judith Emmler, MVM, PhD,aHelmut Kreppel, MVM, PhD,aMarianne Jochum, PhD,band Horst Thiermann, MD, PhDa

aBundeswehr Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Neuherbergstr. 11, 80937 Munich, Germany, and bDivision of Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Biochemistry, Surgical Department, City of the Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Nussbaumstr 20, D-80336 Munich, Germany.


Correspondence: kai.kehe@lrz.uni-muenchen.de

Objective: Sulfur mustard (SM) is a bifunctional alkylating substance being used as chemical warfare agent (vesicant). It is still regarded as a significant threat in chemical warfare and terrorism. Exposure to SM produces cutaneous blisters, respiratory and gastrointestinal tract injury, eye lesions, and bone marrow depression. Victims of World War I as well as those of the Iran-Iraq war have suffered from devastating chronic health impairment. Even decades after exposure, severe long-term effects like chronic obstructive lung disease, lung fibrosis, recurrent corneal ulcer disease, chronic conjunctivitis, abnormal pigmentation of the skin, and different forms of cancer have been diagnosed. Methods: This review briefly summarizes the scientific literature and own results concerning detection, organ toxicity .......