ePlasty: Vol. 11
Electrical Stimulation in Bone Healing: Critical Analysis by Evaluating Levels of Evidence
Michelle Griffin, MRes,a and Ardeshir Bayat, MD, PhDa,b,c

aDepartment of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Research, School of Translational Medicine, Manchester Interdisciplinary Biocentre, University of Manchester, United Kingdom; bDepartment of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, University Hospital of South Manchester NHS Foundation Trust, Wythenshawe Hospital, Southmoor Road, Manchester, United Kingdom and cUniversity of Manchester, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, University Hospital of South Manchester NHS Foundation Trust, Wythenshawe Hospital, Southmoor Road, Manchester, United Kingdom.


Correspondence: ardeshir.bayat@manchester.ac.uk

Objectives: Direct current, capacitive coupling, and inductive coupling are modes of electrical stimulation (ES) used to enhance bone healing. It is important to assess the effectiveness of ES for bone healing to ensure optimization for clinical practice. This review aims to examine the level of evidence (LOE) for the application of ES to enhance bone healing and investigate the proposed mechanism for its stimulatory effect. Methods: MEDLINE and EMBASE searches were conducted to identify clinical and in vitro studies utilizing ES for bone healing since 1959. A total of 105 clinical studies and 35 in vitro studies were evaluated. Clinical studies were assigned LOE according to Oxford Centre for Evidence Based Medicine (LOE-1, hi .......